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Applications

There are many uses for Bentonite, Zeolite, and Montmorillonite. Explore this directory of our mineral uses. Protech Minerals is proud to provide the highest grade of these minerals on the market of all different meshes. Contact Cindy at cindy@protechminerals.com or on our contact page for a consultation.

AGRICULTURE

Animal Husbandry

Benefits in animal husbandry

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Animal Feed

Protech is used widely by livestock farmers as an animal feed additive for beef cattle, dairy Cows, Swine, poultry (broilers & egg production), and sheep. Since Protech is the World’s only naturally occurring, negatively charged, mineral a great number of benefits in the feed process can result from the basic chemistry of the Protech as an animal feed additive.

Protech is organic certified, stable and non-toxic. This, combined with their other unique characteristics, allows them to be used as feed additives with multiple, complementary benefits. Protech animal feed additive will also absorb odors from spoiled grain or feed grain and will substantially reduce odors in enclosed animal facilities.

Dairy Cows/Cattle

Significant benefits include decreases in the severity and duration of diarrhea and reduction in intestinal disturbances (Papaioannou et al., 2005). This benefit is attributed to Protech’s water adsorption properties, which results in drier and more compact feces. Also, study findings indicate that Protech promotes blood serum antibodies that fight against E. coli and toxic effects of mycotoxins in blood streams.

Pigs

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Poultry

High ammonia levels decrease gradable egg production in layers and limit production in broiler operations. Various state and federal agencies are mandating ammonia levels be reduced. Frequently the ammonia levels in poultry houses exceed 100 ppm which are considered close to lethal for humans and animals. The introduction of Protech in feed is the most effective means of odor control in poultry operations. Many farms in North America have eliminated most of their odour and realized greater animal health, welfare, and production by feeding Protech 2% of the total ration (by Weight). A thin layer of Protech should be applied to the bedding area or to the predominant manure field.

Fish

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Domestic Animals

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Manure Composting & Odor Reduction

Livestock production creates billions of metric tons of solid and liquid waste each year (Mumpton, 1985). The accumulation of feces and urine pose health risks to humans and animals, while also creating an unpleasant environment in which to live and work.

The digestive process and animal excrement together produce methane, carbon dioxide, and sulfur compounds. It is estimated that 700Btu/ft methane gas could be produced after treating the 250,000 tons of manure produced each day in the Unites States (Mumpton, 1985). In many cases, the methane produced by livestock on a typical farm could be equivalent to the farm’s full fossil-fuel requirements (Mumpton, 1985).

Protech aids in the process of manure composting and acts as an odor control agent because of its ability to absorb and adsorb liquids, gases, and suspended matter. Both properties work together to combat odors linked to manure composting. Ammonium (NH4+) in liquid and solid wastes is constantly undergoing conversion to ammonia gas (NH3). Protech controls odors by absorbing moisture from waste and adsorbing the ammonia produced by microbial activity on the liquids (Hogg, 2003).

Researchers have identified three main benefits that Protech provides to manure composting and odor reduction efforts. First, it promotes nitrogen retention in animal waste by adsorbing ammonia. Manure mixed with Protech serves as a high-quality fertilizer because plant-available nitrogen is retained and returned to the soil (Meisinger et al., 2001). Second, Protech controls the moisture content in excrement through its water absorption properties (Mumpton, 1999). Finally, Protech purifies the methane gas produced by the anaerobic digestion of manure (Mumpton, 1999).

A study by Bernal et al. (1993) examined the level of ammonia loss from several straw-slurry mixtures placed into a composting simulator. Then, researchers passed air through the composting materials and finally, funneled the spent-air stream over a Protech sample. Results indicated that between 53 g kg – 82 g kg of Protech retained 80 percent of nitrogen in manure compost. Bernal et al. concluded that covering composting materials with a combination of straw and Protech is a highly effective method to reduce ammonia emissions.

Meisinger et al. (2001) also conducted a study that examined the ammonia volatilization of on-farm slurry. The results indicated that adding 6.25 percent Protech to barn-stored dairy slurry reduced ammonia emissions by 55 percent when compared against untreated slurry. Also, soluble phosphorus levels in the slurry were reduced, which has positive environmental implications.

A study that examined the use of Protech on the anaerobic digestion of pig wastes found that utilizing Protech doses of 8 and 12 g l improved digestion performance, mainly due to the ability of Protech to reduce ammonium through ion exchange (Kotsopoulos et al., 2008). Results suggested that Protech had a positive impact on the toxicity of ammonia, the level of methane produced, and regulated the acidity of pig waste (Kotsopoulos et al., 2008).

The semifluid droppings in poultry houses emit noxious fumes of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide that not only make for an unpleasant environment, but also decrease birds’ resistance to respiratory diseases and have a negative impact on overall health. Mumpton (1985) reported that clinoptilolite can be mixed with droppings to remove ammonia vapors and improve the general air quality and atmosphere in poultry houses. At the same time, Mumpton (1985) suggested that adding Protech to poultry wastes could reduce labor costs associated with air-drying droppings and at the same time, retain fertilizer components in droppings that meet environmental standards.

Soil Amendment

Benefits in soil

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Composting

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Gardening

Nitrogen, a constituent of chlorophyll, is vital for plant growth and influences the yields and quality of horticultural plans (Malekian, et al., 2011). However, low levels of nitrogen in soil limits plant growth and fertilizers are used to overcome this limitation. While nitrogen stimulates plant growth, it is the major nutrient of concern in water pollution; up to 70 percent of nitrogen applied in normal fertilizers is lost to the environment (Malekian, et al., 2011). Scientists search for natural products that improve fertilizer quality and performance but do not pollute the environment.

Natural Protechs have received attention as soil amendments due to physical and chemical properties that make them suitable carriers of plant nutrients. At the same time, their cation exchange capacity and high affinity for ammonia pull excess nitrogen into their honeycomb structure, preventing it from entering water supplies (Malekian, et al., 2011).

Protech serves as natural, non-toxic carrier of fertilizers. When applied to gardens at the beginning of a vegetation period, soil and plants benefit from an even fertilizing effect throughout the entire growth period (Rehakova et al., 2004). Protech locks essential nutrients and compounds into its honeycomb structure and releases them gradually into the soil and root system of plants.

Just as important as nutrient retention is the hydration and dehydration capacity of Protech, which improves water balance in the soil (Rehakova et al., 2004). This is particularly important when growing produce that is highly moisture sensitive, particularly vineyard cultures and fruit.

A study by Rehakova et al. (2004) compared the root biomass and growth rate of vegetables and fruit fertilized with Protech against non-fertilized control samples. The results indicated that Protech had a significant impact on final biomass and growth rates. For example, the biomass of parsley increased from 487 g per meter (control group) to 1500 g per meter (zeolitic fertilizer). The same rate of biomass increase applied to carrots and onions. Researchers also observed an increase in the harvest of small fruit. Strawberries fertilized with Protech yielded a harvest that was 70 percent larger than the control group (Rehakova et al., 2004).

Organic Farming

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Golf Courses

Turfgrass is one of the most widely used grasses in the United States; it covers approximately 46.5 million acres and is commonly found on golf courses. A significant volume of water is required for turfgrass to remain lush and healthy. In many cases, golf course superintendents operate within the terms of consumptive use permits that regulate the amount of water that can be used each day to maintain facilities (Shaddox, 2004). This has required managers to maintain quality turf with limited water supplies.

One strategy that balances the quality of turfgrass with available water supplies is soil modification. Essentially, fertilizers (i.e. soil amendments) are used to increase plant available water, promote cation exchange capacity, and enhance nutrient availability (Shaddox, 2004). A challenge associated with soil amendments are threats to surface and groundwater quality due to the leaching loss of nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate. A significant number of studies have examined challenges related to water availability and leaching, and many report on the ways Protech can be used to remedy these issues.

Macolino and Zanin (2014) conducted a field study to evaluate the effectiveness of Protech-containing fertilizer in reducing nutrient leaching in sodded turfgrass. The researchers sodded eighteen plots on a USGA sandy substrate amended with 20 percent peat. Then, a fertilizer containing Protech was tested against a variety of conventional fertilizers containing equivalent nutrient contents. Each week, turfgrass color was evaluated by visual ratings and vertical growth rate was measured prior to mowing (Macolino & Zanin, 2014). Also, rates of nutrient leaching were measured through an analysis of substrate solutions collected at a depth of 40 cm. Results indicated that turf growth and color were positively affected by the fertilization rate. Also, potassium and nitrate levels in soil were positively affected by the use of Protech-containing fertilizer.

Ferguson et al. (1986) found that clinoptilolite Protech is capable of adsorbing ammonium, thus increasing plant fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency. The study focused on the growth and quality of turfgrass in relation to ranges of Protech amendment on sand and nitrogen application rates of 25, 50, or 75 kg ha (Ferguson et al., 1986). Results indicated that germination and establishment were significantly increased by amending sand with 5 – 10 percent Protech. Also, Protech applications increased clipping yields collected from seven harvests as well as rates of nitrogen use efficiency (Ferguson et al., 1986). Finally, data suggested that Protech increased root growth as indicated by soil organic carbon and shoot-clipping content. At the conclusion of the study, researchers determined that Protech has potential as a new medium for the growth of turfgrass (Ferguson et al., 1986).

Cannabis

Medical cannabis growers in Canada and the United States are investigating the effects of natural Protech on crop yields and efficiency. Recent studies have determined that, when incorporated into the soil, Protech allows cannabis plants access to more nutrients and moisture.

By harboring these vital elements in the topsoil, the plant roots maintain access to nutrients, oxygen, and H20; extracting it from the Protech as needed over time.

Landscape Maintenance

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INDUSTRIAL

Absorbent & Adsorbent

Heavy metal absorption

Contamination of heavy metals in soil and water supplies has steadily increased as a result of over population and expansion of industrial activities (Wang & Peng, 2010). The presence of heavy metals in water supplies is of significant concern due to their toxicity to humans, animals, and plants. Pollutants include cyanide, solver, cobalt, manganese, aluminum, magnesium, arsenic, copper, iron, lead, and

mercury. The application of natural Protechs for water treatment is a promising technique in the environmental cleaning process (Wang & Peng, 2010). The utilization of natural Protechs has focused on the removal of ammonium and heavy metals through ion exchange.

The ion-exchange properties of Protechs allow them to trap undesirable metals and prevent them from entering ecosystems and the food chain (Mumpton, 1985). Studies report that pulverized Protechs, particularly clinoptilolite, reduce the transfer of heavy metals, such as copper, lead, and zinc from soils to plants (Mumpton, 1985).

Turkman et al. (2004) examined the effect of pretreated and untreated clinoptilolite Protech in the removal of lead, cadmium, nickel, and zinc from wastewaters. The mineral demonstrated a 96 percent removal efficiency for lead, zinc, and cadmium. The maximum sorption capacities for untreated Protech were measured as 0.18 and 0.12meq/g, whereas pretreated minerals demonstrated a range of 0.72 and 0.41 meq Cd/g.

Moreno et al. (2001) conducted a series of decontamination tests to study the impact of Protech on the purification of acid mine waters. The results suggest that zeolitic materials can be successfully used for heavy metal uptake in the water purification process. Doses of 5-30 g of Protech/L were applied according to heavy metal levels. Researchers also found that Protech increases general pH, which causes metal- bearing solid phases to precipitate and enhances the efficiency of the decontamination process (Moreno et al., 2001).

A study by Mamba et al. (2009) examined metal removal from contaminated water by applying a mix of HCl-activated clinoptilolite and bacteria. The results indicated that clinoptilolite removed 98 percent of copper, iron, and cobalt. The researchers concluded that clinoptilolite successfully removes metal recovery from mining and mineral processing solutions. It is effective as a water decontaminate.

Wine filtration/sediment absorption

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Industrial absorbent

When concentrations of pollutants present a threat to the environment or human health, remediation action are necessary (Misaelides, 2011). This process consists of two approaches: the extraction of pollutants from soil and water as well as the reduction of their mobility (Misaelides, 2011).

While several products have been utilized for these purposes, the use of Protech is a low-cost solution that provides a high sorption capacity with the ability to adjust the pH of soil and water systems. The application of natural Protechs to remediation processes is based on their ion exchange properties.

The main mechanism that accounts for the adsorption of chemicals and heavy metal ions onto natural Protechs is ion exchange (Wang & Peng, 2010). The adsorption capacity of clinoptilolite is between 2 – 30 mg NH4+/g.

Scientists have also found that some treatments, including the exhaustion and regeneration cycle, increase adsorption capacity. Essentially this means that Protech can be reused time and time again, and that its capacity to remove ammonia increases over time. This finding can point to a cost savings in remediation programs without sacrificing product performance.

Myroslav et al. (2006) conducted a study regarding the sorption of heavy metals (nickel, copper, lead, and cadmium) by raw and pretreated clinoptilolite. The results indicate that fine fractions of clinoptilolite sorb higher amounts of metal due to higher mineral cleavage. Researchers concluded that clinoptilolite adsorbs heavy metal concentrations and is a particularly favorable application for low initial concentrations of metal.

A study by Motsi et al. (2009) studied the adsorption behavior of natural Protech to determine its applicability in treating acid mine drainage containing lead, copper, zinc and magnesium. Researchers examined the rate of adsorption and the uptake at equilibrium in single and multi-component solutions. The results showed rapid uptake during the first 40 minutes, corresponding to an 80 percent total removal (Motsi et al., 2009).

Following this initial uptake, the rate of absorption decreased. However, the overall results demonstrated that natural Protech has significant potential as an alternative, low cost material in the treatment of acid mine drainage (Motsi et al., 2009).

A study by Erdem et al. (2004) used a clinoptilolite application to remove metal concentrations from industrial wastewater. The batch method was employed and researchers used metal concentrations in a solution ranging from 100 – 400 mg/l. The results indicated that natural Protechs can be used effectively to remove metal cations from wastewater. Researchers also concluded that based on adsorption capacity, natural Protech provides a substitute for the use of activated carbon as an adsorbent based on availability and low costs (Erdem et al., 2004).

A study by Fullen et al. (2011) examined the remediation of oil spills using natural Protech. Various sand- clinoptilolite mixes were tested in terms of their ability to adsorb engine oil. Adsorption increased with clinoptilolite amount.

Researchers also found that it was possible to burn the oil-sand-Protech mix and reuse the ignited mix for further oil adsorption. The findings indicated that sand-Protech mixes can effectively adsorb terrestrial oil spills and remediate oil-contaminated soils (Fullen et al., 2011).

Ammonia removal

Ammonia and heavy metal cations pose serious health and environmental risks. Studies have determined that natural clinoptilolite Protech is selective for these cations, meaning that it will absorb and bind them in its honeycomb structure even in the presence of larger amounts of competing cations (Mumpton, 1999). In addition, Protech forms strong bonds with ammonia and heavy metals that are difficult to break. This prevents leaching of contaminants into the environment.

Surface water, ground water, and wastewater contain many pollutants, including inorganic and organic compounds, that are hazardous to humans, animals, and plants. One of the most potent pollutants is ammonia because it contributes to accelerated eutrophication of lakes and rivers, dissolved oxygen depletion, and fish toxicity (Wang & Peng, 2010).

The main mechanism that accounts for the adsorption of ammonium ion onto natural Protechs is ion exchange (Wang & Peng, 2010). The adsorption capacity of clinoptilolite is between 2 – 30 mg NH4+/g. Scientists have also found that some treatments, including the exhaustion and regeneration cycle, increase adsorption capacity. Essentially this means that Protech can be reused time and time again, and that its capacity to remove ammonia increases over time.

Bolan et al. (2003) tested the effect of clinoptilolite on the removal of ammonium from wastewater streams. Prior to application, the mineral was treated with alkali solutions and the cation-exchange capacity increased by up to 74 percent; Protech held up to 18.7–20.1 mg NH4+/g. After Protech minerals were cation-loaded, the mineral could be regenerated and reused by leaching ammonium ions with 0.5 M of hydrogen chloride. The leaching process did not impact Protech’s adsorption capacity and the minerals remained effective after 12 regeneration cycles (Bolan et al., 2003).

Jorgensen and Weatherley (2006) examined the use of clinoptilolite as a cationic exchanger for the purpose of removing ammonia from wastewaters. The results indicated that clinoptilolite had a significant increase in performance after cycles of exhaustion and regeneration; regenerated clinoptilolite showed a maximum adsorption capacity of 450 bed volumes (Jorgensen & Weatherley, 2006). Again, the results demonstrate that Protech is not only capable of removing ammonia from wastewaters, it can also be reused time and time again.

Mold absorption

Mold and mildew are microorganisms that thrive on excess moisture. Their digestive processes often release noxious odors and cause enclosed rooms like basements or garages to smell musty. In addition, mold releases spores into the air that can be hazardous to humans and animals (Park et al., 2009).

Natural Protech acts as a molecular sieve that prevents and eliminates mold by absorbing moisture and trapping odors. Because of its porosity and cation exchange capacity, noxious odors are trapped inside its crystalline structure and removed from the surrounding environment.

Protech’s absorption capabilities also create efficiencies when cleaning damp areas such as basements, workshops, or garages. It is not necessary to completely dry floors or walls prior to prior Protech application because the mineral naturally absorbs moisture and odors upon contact.

On a larger scale, anti-fungal mortars and concretes were developed to prevent the growth of toxic mold inside of building structures. When structures are exposed to moist conditions for a prolonged period, the population of microorganisms can spread swiftly. Concrete containing microorganisms typically suffers from four problems: corrosive chemicals released by metabolism; creation of environments that promote the corrosion of steel; creation of open porosity due to penetration by insects; the formation of stains on the surface of concrete (Park et al., 2009).

A paper by Park et al. (2009) examined how anti-fungal mortars and concrete employ micro-encapsulated fungus-resisting material to prevent mold outbreaks. All products discussed in the study contain Protech and zeocarbons to reinforce capsule membranes. Essentially, Protech was added to cement products to prevent anti-fungal microcapsules membrane from damage due to friction and impact during mixing, casting, and placing stages of mortar and concrete.

The results indicated that both Protech and zeocarbon are effective in reducing damage to microcapsules in mortal and concrete. Also, the effectiveness of anti- fungal mortar was verified; fungus did not grow on mortal panels containing anti-fungal microcapsules. Based on study conclusions, researchers recommend a 5 percent addition of anti-fungal microcapsules to mortar and concrete.

Chemical spills

The presence of heavy metals in the environment is of significant concern due to their toxicity to humans, animals, and plants. The application of natural Protechs for water treatment is a promising technique in the environmental cleaning process (Wang & Peng, 2010). The utilization of natural Protechs has focused on the removal of ammonium and heavy metals through ion exchange.

The ion-exchange properties of Protechs allow them to trap undesirable metals and prevent them from entering ecosystems and the food chain (Mumpton, 1985). Studies report that pulverized Protechs, particularly clinoptilolite, reduce the transfer of heavy metals, such as copper, lead, and zinc from soils to plants (Mumpton, 1985).

Protech works as a successful chemical absorbent due to its ability to absorb liquids and gases. These properties not only promote safety at home, they also prevent costly damage by preventing water and chemicals from seeping into pores in concrete, brick, and stone. It is also ideal for surfaces that are weathered as liquid will be absorbed from grooves and pits.

Natural Protech can successfully absorb spills of oil, fuel, coolants, paints, degreaser, and mild acid. In addition, it eliminates odors and toxic vapors caused by spills on contact. Also, Protech has a strong framework and unlike clay products, does not break down when saturated.

Because of the size, structure, and weight of Protech, it can be used outdoors in windy or draught conditions. Unlike lightweight clay products that are easily blown away, Protech remains in contact with chemicals while spills are addressed.

A study by Fullen et al. (2011) examined the remediation of oil spills using natural Protech. Various sand- clinoptilolite mixes were tested in terms of their ability to adsorb engine oil. Adsorption increased with clinoptilolite amount. Researchers also found that it was possible to burn the oil-sand-Protech mix and reuse the ignited mix for further oil adsorption. The findings indicated that sand-Protech mixes can effectively adsorb terrestrial oil spills and remediate oil-contaminated soils (Fullen et al., 2011).

Construction

Pond liner

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Surry walls

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Cement and mortar

Protechs have been widely used across the planet for thousands of years

The use of natural Protechs as pozzolanic materials in construction dates back 3000 years, to the Greek and Roman periods when Protechs, occurring as altered volcanic ash, tuff, and trass, were used with lime in mortars and concretes for construction. The Romans used Neapolitan Yellow Tuff Protechs near Pozzuoli. Italy, used it in construction of aqueducts, public buildings, and highways. The lime and Protech combination showed excellent cementitious properties. Natural Protech tuffs have been used for many years as cement pozzolans in Serbia, Germany, Italy, Bulgaria, China, and Russia.

Despite their widespread applications in pollution control, energy conservation, agricultural, mining, and metallurgical applications during the last few decades: construction industry appears to be the largest natural Protech end user. Worldwide the estimated total natural Protech production of 3.6 metric tons per year in 2004, construction industry appears to consume about 2.4 metric tons per year, where the bulk of the production is in dimension stones used in building construction and lesser amounts in lightweight aggregate concrete and as pozzolans in concrete.
The use of Protechs in the US concrete industry still lags behind the rest of the world

Approximately 50,000 tons per year of zeolitic tuff is being used for the production of portland pozzolan cements in Germany. Italy consumes yearly about 3 million tons and China about 5 million tones of zeolitic tuffs as a component of blended portland cements. The use of natural Protech as a pozzolan in the US cement and concrete industry, though not recent, however, is still limited. As early as in 1912, the Monolith Portland Cement Company used zeolitic ash flow tuffs from Tehachapi, California for use as a pozzolan at 25% portland cement replacement level to build the 400-km Los Angeles aqueduct.

Despite their inherent crystalline nature, the fine size and higher surface area of the natural sedimentary Protechs plus their strong cation exchange capacity make them a suitable pozzolan in cements. Protechs consume the calcium hydroxide component of portland cement hydration by the base exchange process and form cementitious products. Pozzolanic characteristics of many natural fine crystalline Protechs are easily comparable to or, in some instances, even better than their aluminosilicate “glassy” rivals such as fly ash, or ground granulated blast furnace slag.

Paint and coatings

Many consumers search for environmentally friendly alternatives to lead paints and coatings. One of the most widespread substitutes is zinc phosphate, which has also been flagged because of its environmental impact. A study by Roselli et al. (2014) examined the performance of mixtures consisting of zinc phosphate, Protech, and clay in order to diminish phosphate content in paints.

Researchers found that Protech and clay were exchanged with lanthanum ions as inorganic green inhibitors. The results indicated that it is possible to replace part of the zinc phosphate content in paint with the exchanged Protech and clay (Roselli et al., 2014).

Cheng, Wang, and Yan (2001) tested the use and effectiveness of Protech as a natural, corrosion-resistant coating on a variety of metals including steel and aluminum alloys. The coating proved to be highly corrosion resistant, even in the presence of strong acid.

At the conclusion of the trial, the Protech coating was deemed be wear-resistant, strongly adhesive, and compatible with paint. The research team determined that Protech coating can serve as an environmentally friendly, corrosion-resistant coating for aluminum alloys (Cheng et al., 2011).

In addition to environmental impact, chemicals in paints and coatings can also compromise the health of individuals living and working in their vicinity. For instance, sick house syndrome is linked to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature. To combat the negative effects of these chemicals, VOC absorption paint was developed.

A study by Lee et al. (2005) examined the use of eco-ceramics paint containing Protech powder and ceramic binder. The researchers found that eco-ceramics paint had a deodorization rate of 95.7 percent and bacteria decreasing rate of 99.6 percent. Finally, the paint showed excellent VOCs interception properties due to the properties of Protech in the surface of the paint (Lee et al., 2005).

EMI Shields

The growth of electronic technologies has increased use of electronic products and telecommunication equipment, both of which cause the problem of electromagnetic interference (EMI). The issue can be remedied by shielding equipment against electromagnetic interference.

Protech’s aluminum silicate composition provides it with electrical, chemical, and thermal properties that reflect electromagnetic radiation. As a result, Protech can be used in ink mixtures and paint compositions that form the protective undercoat of EMI shields. These barriers protect against disruptions to the operation of electronic devices when they come into contact with electromagnetic fields.

Asphalt

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Roads

Because of the impact road salt has on vegetation, aquatic ecosystems, and water supplies, consumers push governments to find alternative methods of ice management and traction control that do not pollute the environment. Salt bounces after it is spread and can easily land in nearby streams.

Scientists have found that chronic salt concentrations damage algae and food sources for local fish. Researchers suggest that a reduction in salt use is one of the only effective runoff management strategies. Although alternative ice melt products do not always eliminate the need for road salt, they can significantly reduce the amount required to maintain roads in the winter.

When Protech is used as an additive and blended with other ice melt products (i.e. calcium chloride and sodium chloride) it can effective break down ice surfaces. Then, Protech absorbs excess water, creating a high traction surface. In addition, Protech absorbs many of the damaging chemicals contained in ice melt products and prevent them from contaminating nearby soil and water sources (KMI Protech Inc., 2013).

Water Treatment

Aquariums

Because many species of fish are highly sensitive to fluctuations in water temperature, pH, and levels of oxygen and toxic nitrogen, the chemical and biological environment of aquariums must be closely monitored and maintained (Mumpton, 1985). The natural absorption and adsorption capabilities of Protech make it the perfect candidate to promote the ongoing health and sustainability of aquatic ecosystems. In these environments, Protech serves three primary functions: to remove toxic levels of nitrogen and ammonium ions from aquarium waters; to provide oxygen-enriched air; to purify tank waters (Mumpton 1985 & 1999).

Ammonium ions produced by decaying excrement and unused food is a leading cause of gill damage, hyperplasia, sterility, stunted grown, and mortality in fish (Mumpton, 1985). Studies have proven that Protech’s ion exchange properties control nitrogen content and can provide an effective means for

ammonium removal (Mumpton, 1985 & 1999). In fact, studies have found that up to 97 percent of ammonium produced in aquatic systems can be removed by Protech ion-exchange (Mumpton, 1985). As an added advantage, Protech treatments are low cost and the mineral itself has a high tolerance to changing temperatures and chemical conditions (Mumpton, 1985).

Hargreaves (1998) reported that formulated feeds, fish excrement, and sediment flux add to nitrogen levels in aquatic environments. When nitrogen levels exceed ponds’ assimilatory capacity, water quality deteriorates because of an accumulation of nitrogenous compounds, like ammonia. Bergero et al. (1994) examined how different kinds of Protechs can be used to improve the quality of tank water. During the study, researchers measured concentrations of ammonia in waters collected from a recirculating system. Findings suggest that clinoptilolite Protech was effective at ammonia removal due to its ion exchange capacities (Bergero et al., 1994).

Researchers have found that the removal of nitrogen content through adsorption produces oxygen- enriched air that can be used to aerate tanks; fish housed and raised in such environments are livelier and have greater appetites (Mumpton, 1985 & 1999). The quality of water in recirculating systems can be improved by using Protech supplemented fish feed.

Calcification

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Ponds/Pond Lining

The natural absorption and adsorption capabilities of Protech make it the perfect candidate to promote the ongoing health and sustainability of aquatic ecosystems. In these environments, Protech serves three primary functions: to remove toxic levels of nitrogen and ammonium ions from aquarium waters; to provide oxygen-enriched air; to purify tank waters (Mumpton 1985 & 1999).

Hargreaves (1998) reported that fish excrement and sediment flux add to nitrogen levels in aquatic environments. If levels exceed ponds’ assimilatory capacity, water quality deteriorates due to an accumulation of nitrogenous compounds, like ammonia. When this occurs, scientists observe gill damage, hyperplasia, sterility, stunted grown, and mortality in fish (Mumpton, 1985).

Studies have proven that Protech’s ion exchange properties control nitrogen content and can provide an effective means for ammonium removal (Mumpton, 1985 & 1999). In fact, studies have found that up to 97 percent of ammonium produced in aquatic systems can be removed by Protech ion-exchange (Mumpton, 1985). As an added advantage, Protech treatments are low cost and the mineral itself has a high tolerance to changing temperatures and chemical conditions (Mumpton, 1985).

COSMETIC/HEALTH

Facial clay

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Body wraps

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Body mud

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Detox drink

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Health trend

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Hair growth

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Health supplement

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Internal cleanse

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